Small, dirty manufacturing plants dominate poor regions but have only a small impact on pollution. Large plants in high-income areas cause most of the damage to human health.
This issue of the journal includes three papers that touch on relations among socioeconomic status (SES), health, and air quality. Jerrett et al considered whether SES differentials in Hamilton, Ontario, modify the temporal relations between daily mortality and either coefficient of haze (COH) or SO2. Martins et al did a similar analysis with respect to PM10 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The third paper, by Gouveia et al, also involved Sao Paulo but examined cross sectional relations between several pollutants and infant birth weight.
In July 1997, the second International Conference on Acute Respiratory Infections was held in Canberra, Australia. In this conference, there was not one paper or plenary presentation on these factors in developing countries, and only one session out of 34 on the topic in developed countries. This is partly due to a perception in the ARI professional community that little progress has been made in understanding this complicated set of issues.
Eminent developmental economist Prof.
Studies & Presentations
Given a poverty line, a person who is non-poor (poor) currently may not be treated as non-poor (poor) in a vulnerable situation. The poverty line is adjusted in the presence of vulnerability such that the utility of a person at the current poverty line and that at the adjusted poverty line become identical. Using an additive model of vulnerability, it is shown that if the utility function obeys constant Arrow-Pratt absolute risk aversion, then the harmonized poverty line is a simple absolute augmentation of the current poverty line.
The Pacific Possible: Climate change and Disaster Resilience report highlights the costs of making Pacific coastlines more resilient to climate change, which vary between one and thirteen percent of GDP across all Pacific Island countries, with higher costs in atoll island states such as Kiribati and Marshall Islands.