This volume presents a comprehensive state-of-the-art on economic instruments for environmental management and sustainable development and reviews the experience of developed countries and its relevance to developing countries. It documents the experience of developing countries in the use of economic instruments in environmental management. It attempts to delineate the modalities for introducing economic instruments in developing countries and countries in transition and human resource requirements and financial implications.
The remote island countries of Kiribati and Tonga in the Pacific rely mainly on fragile groundwater aquifers for fresh water. But groundwater sources just below the surface are highly vulnerable to pollution and salt water intrusion, as populations grow and concentrate in urban areas. Community organizers are working to change peoples' behavior to safeguard water supplies and the environment.
Developing Asia as a whole has taken remarkable strides since the food crises of the 1960s. Improvements in food security, poverty reduction, and per capita income initiated by the Green Revolution have been substantial and lasting. Per capita gross domestic product increased by 190 percent between 1970 and 1995, and calories per person per day by more than 20 percent.
Studies & Presentations
Recent regional climate change projections have consequences for human systems, particularly for developing countries in Asia and the Pacific.
Given a poverty line, a person who is non-poor (poor) currently may not be treated as non-poor (poor) in a vulnerable situation. The poverty line is adjusted in the presence of vulnerability such that the utility of a person at the current poverty line and that at the adjusted poverty line become identical. Using an additive model of vulnerability, it is shown that if the utility function obeys constant Arrow-Pratt absolute risk aversion, then the harmonized poverty line is a simple absolute augmentation of the current poverty line.