Small, dirty manufacturing plants dominate poor regions but have only a small impact on pollution. Large plants in high-income areas cause most of the damage to human health.
Vulnerability to desertification in Africa is assessed using the information on soils, climate, and the previously evaluated land resource stresses.
Desertification processes affect about 46% of Africa. The significance of this large area becomes evident when one considers that about 43% of the continent is characterized as extreme deserts (the desert margins represent the areas with very high vulnerability).
The study concludes that: