This paper summarises the conclusions of a four-country study that has examined the linkages between environmental policies and outcomes, public expenditure on the environment and the influence of different modalities of development cooperation. Four short country studies of Ghana, Mali, Mozambique and Tanzania were conducted between September and December 2007. A review of relevant literature on the environment and on the treatment within budgets and budget support processes of other cross-cutting issues, such as gender, was also undertaken.
Pollution and Health
Presented during the Fourth Regional Environmentally Sustainable Transport (EST) Forum on 24-26 February 2009, in Seoul.
- Asia-Pacific environmental challenge: Shifting towards Green Growth and Low-carbon Development
- Importance of infrastructure and transport sector for attaining Green Growth and Low- carbon Development
- ESCAP programmes
Following the change of emphasis described under the menu item User Guide, IIED has now developed a First Rough Draft of a “Guide to Environmental Mainstreaming”.
Part 1 of this guide analyse the contextual issues (e.g. drivers and constraints) and institutional dimensions issues that frame environmental mainstreaming and provides a perspective on the key challenges.
Contribution of the environment and natural resources to pro-poor growth: a checklist examining these issues within a poverty reduction strategy
Evidence is mixed on the extent to which environmental and natural resource (ENR) issues are covered in poverty reduction strategy (PRS) documents, though too often they tend to be overlooked. If a country is to achieve its growth and poverty reduction targets, such issues cannot be ignored.
Women and men interact with the physical environment in different ways and different cultures define roles for women that tend to include activities closely related to the environment and natural resources. But even though women’s dependence on natural resources in developing countries has been recognized internationally, women’s interests and participation in decision making and natural resource management at all levels are still not equal with men’s. This compromises the abilities of local communities, nations, and the international community to achieve sustainable development.