At the upcoming United Nations Summit, member states will reach an agreement on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Development practitioners will then engage in monitoring the achievements of the goals and targets. As was the case with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), country, regional and global level progress reports are likely to proliferate.
Pollution and Health
Many people are putting their faith in private finance – particularly international private finance streams such as foreign direct investment and loans – to finance climate adaptation in LDCs and SIDS, but this faith may be misplaced.
The PBL Climate Pledge INDC tool shows the impact of the emission reduction proposals (pledges or Intended Nationally Determined Contributions) and policies, per country, on greenhouse gas emission projections for 2020 and 2030.
In the second of a series of interviews on issues relating to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), IIED chief economist Paul Steele says the SDGs recognise the crucial challenge of achieving zero poverty and zero net emissions.
Between 1980 and 2000 – a timber logging boom. Illegal logging followed – so, another boom in the 10 years from 2000, and then the palm oil boom came after that.
Pristine forest was severely logged and turned into degraded forest. What was left was slashed and burned, made ready for oil palm and wood plantations of different scales.
This landscape transformation provided benefits and costs to various actors. But fire and haze were also part of the landscape transformation.