This paper reviews the Bolivian experience of decentralization and the involvement of municipal governments around issues that have some direct or indirect influence on forest management and forest users’ livelihoods.
In the South African context, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has emerged as the new integrated approach to promote sustainable forest management.
The concept of payments for environmental services (PES) has received substantial interest in recent years as a way of creating incentive measures for managing natural resources, addressing livelihood issues for the rural poor, and providing sustainable financing for protected areas.
Natural disasters, like the “El Niño” phenomenon often hit hardest on the poor. Yet it is often difficult to separate the effects on living conditions produced by the inclement weather conditions from general inadequacies in infrastructure and lack of economic development.
Science and technology have played a vital role in keeping agricultural production a step ahead of rapid global population growth during the past four decades.