This paper builds on this new global sustainable development framework: making the case to mainstream poverty, environment — and now climate — issues into the centre of efforts to implement the SDGs, nationally Determined Contributions and other initiatives towards the 2030 agenda. the paper addresses the significant scale of linked poverty, environment and climate problems and emphasises the need for structural reforms, especially to improve inclusion.
While significant development progress has been achieved over the past two decades, with almost 650 million people moving out of extreme poverty in developing countries between 1990 and 2008, nearly 1.3 billion women, men and children have been left behind living on less than US$1.25 per day. Even greater numbers suffer other forms of poverty and deprivation, and inequality both within and across countries has increased.
This draft document demonstrates how effective policies and investments for natural resources can sustain pro-poor growth and support the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. It examines in detail six natural resources which have a critical role to play in sustaining pro-poor growth: fisheries, forests, nature based tourism, agriculture and soils, water and mineral resources and oil.
These cases describe how natural resource exploitation has contributed to economic growth in several developing countries. It is discussed how management changes have increased benefits from natural resource in terms of (i) increasing economic growth, (ii) distributing growth to the poor and (iii) sustaining growth and the environment. Challenges related to the specific case studies are also discussed.
This paper identifies two basic trajectories to a high-income democracy linked to the scale and deployment of rents. Low-rent countries tend to engender developmental political states that competitively diversify the economy and sustain rapid per capita GDP (PCGDP) growth, which strengthens three key sanctions against anti-social governance (political accountability, social capital and the rule of law) to achieve endogenous democratisation that is incremental. In contrast, rent-rich countries are likely to experience a slower and more erratic transition.