This volume presents a comprehensive state-of-the-art on economic instruments for environmental management and sustainable development and reviews the experience of developed countries and its relevance to developing countries. It documents the experience of developing countries in the use of economic instruments in environmental management. It attempts to delineate the modalities for introducing economic instruments in developing countries and countries in transition and human resource requirements and financial implications.
This issue of the journal includes three papers that touch on relations among socioeconomic status (SES), health, and air quality. Jerrett et al considered whether SES differentials in Hamilton, Ontario, modify the temporal relations between daily mortality and either coefficient of haze (COH) or SO2. Martins et al did a similar analysis with respect to PM10 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The third paper, by Gouveia et al, also involved Sao Paulo but examined cross sectional relations between several pollutants and infant birth weight.
Small, dirty manufacturing plants dominate poor regions but have only a small impact on pollution. Large plants in high-income areas cause most of the damage to human health.
In November 2015, 50 million cubic metres of waste was unleashed after a tailings dam collapsed in the Gualaxo River Valley.
Studies & Presentations
Amazonia is the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth, and the debate over how many tree species grow there remains contentious. Here we provide a checklist of all tree species collected to date, and describe spatial and temporal trends in data accumulation. We report 530,025 unique collections of trees in Amazonia, dating between 1707 and 2015, for a total of 11,676 species in 1225 genera and 140 families.
Costa Rica’s Payments for Ecosystems Services (PES) programme has become something of an icon in the world of PES. Its hitches and successes provide a valuable source of information and inspiration for other countries interested in exploring ‘policymixes’ of economic and regulatory instruments to promote ecosystems conservation and regeneration.