Climate changes and health are inextricably linked. Climate conditions affect human well-being both directly, through the physical effects of climatic extremes, and, indirectly through influences on the levels of pollution in the air, on the agriculture, marine and freshwater systems that provide food and water and on the vectors that cause infectious diseases such as Malaria, Dengue, Kala Azar and Filaria.
As of late 1999, Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRSs) have been introduced as a key instrument for a country's relationship with the donor community. After completion of a Joint World Bank and IMF Staff Assessment, the Boards of the World Bank and the IMF review PRSs as they relate to the respective institution's mandate, presented in the form of a PRS Paper (PRSP). In this context, the purpose of this review is to systematically assess the degree of mainstreaming in PRSPs, and to identify a selection of good practice that can lead the way for further improvements.
New initiatives in agroforestry are seeking to integrate indigenous trees whose products have traditionally been gathered from natural forests into tropical farming systems, such as cocoa farms. This is being done in order to provide marketable timber and non-timber forest products from farms that will enhance rural livelihoods by generating cash for resource-poor rural and peri-urban households. There are many potential candidate species for domestication that have commercial potential in local, regional or even international markets.